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IDNs 国际化域名 国際化ドメイン名 국제화 도메인

Computing and the Internet has long been dominated by English. With the advent of Unicode this started to change. Unicode enables the encoding and display of most of the World Languages and special symbols. Increasingingly Unicode is being adopted and intergrated into Web Pages, Computer Applications and Information Systems. It is envsaged that eventually, Computing and the Internet will become truly Internationalized. Another step along this way is the gradual adoption of IDNs.

An IDN is an Internationalized Domain Name that can contain non-ASCII characters. It can contain names in non English languages. So one can have Web Site addresses in any language. Currently the TLD (Top Level Domain) must be ASCII but there are developments to make Unicode TLDs

Currently, Domain Name Servers, only support addresses that comprise ASCII characters. IDNs are converted to ASCII using Nameprep and Punycode. IDN aware browsers like Safari and Firefox do this conversion automatically. If you see an address with a label beginning with "xn--" then this is the ASCII form of an IDN.

The following are all working IDNs. The links below will only work If you are using an IDN capable browser, such as, Safari, Firefox or IE7+.

In addition to this IDNs list, there is a comprehensive and searchable database of IDNs at http://idnsearch.net/ .

Loughborough (拉夫堡) IDN Web Addresses

  1. http://拉夫堡学生会.cn/ ... Loughborough Student Union Simplified Chinese IDN
  2. http://拉夫堡學生會.cn/ ... Loughborough Student Union Traditional Chinese IDN
  3. http://拉夫堡学生会.中国/ ... Loughborough Student Union Simplified。Simplified Chinese IDN
  4. http://拉夫堡學生會.中國/ ... Loughborough Student Union Traditional。Traditional Chinese IDN
  5. http://ラフバラ学生組合.net/ ... Loughborough Student Union Japanese IDN
  6. http://拉夫堡大学.com/ ... Loughborough University Chinese IDN
  7. http://ラフバラ大学.com/ ... Loughborough University Japanese IDN
  8. http://ラフバラー大学.com/ ... Loughborough University Japanese IDN
  9. http://러프버러대학교.com/ ... Loughborough University Korean IDN
  10. http://УниверситетЛафборо.com/ ... Loughborough University Russian IDN
  11. http://جامعةلوفبورا.com/ ... Loughborough University Arabic IDN
  12. http://جامعةلوبورو.com/ ... Loughborough University Arabic IDN
  13. http://TrườngđạihọcLoughborough.com/ ... Loughborough University Vietnamese IDN
  14. http://มหาวิทยาลัยLoughborough.com/ ... Loughborough University Thai IDN
  15. http://拉夫堡大学.cn/ ... Loughborough University .cn IDN (Simplified Chinese)
  16. http://拉夫堡大學.cn/ ... Loughborough University .cn IDN (Traditional Chinese)
  17. http://拉福堡大学.cn/ ... Loughborough University .cn IDN (Simplified Chinese)
  18. http://拉福堡大學.cn/ ... Loughborough University .cn IDN (Traditional Chinese)
  19. http://拉夫堡大学。中国/ ... Loughborough University .中国 IDN (Simplified Chinese) Ⓒ
  20. http://拉夫堡大學。中国/ ... Loughborough University .中国 IDN (Traditional Chinese) Ⓒ
  21. http://拉福堡大学。中国/ ... Loughborough University .中国 IDN (Simplified Chinese) Ⓒ
  22. http://拉福堡大學。中国/ ... Loughborough University .中国 IDN (Traditional Chinese) Ⓒ
  23. http://拉夫堡大学.com/计算机科学 ... Computer Science, Loughborough University
  24. http://ラフバラ大学.com/コンピュータサイエンス ... Computer Science, Loughborough University
  25. http://러프버러대학교.com/컴퓨터과학 ... Computer Science, Loughborough University
  26. http://УниверситетЛафборо.com/ВычислительнаяНаука ... Computer Science, Loughborough University
  27. http://جامعةلوفبورا.com/علوم‌الكمبيوتر ... Computer Science, Loughborough University
  28. http://TrườngđạihọcLoughborough.com/KhoahọcMáytính ... Computer Science, Loughborough University
  29. http://拉夫堡大学.com/信息科学 ... Information Science, Loughborough University
  30. http://ラフバラ大学.com/インフォメーションサイエンス ... Information Science, Loughborough University
  31. http://ラフバラ大学.com/情報科学 ... Information Science, Loughborough University
  32. http://러프버러대학교.com/정보과학 ... Information Science, Loughborough University
  33. http://拉夫堡大学.cn/材料 ... Department of Materials, Loughborough University
  34. http://ラフバラ大学.com/材料 ... Department of Materials, Loughborough University
  35. http://УниверситетЛафборо.com/Материалы ... Department of Materials, Loughborough University
  36. http://УниверситетЛафборо.com/Материаловедение ... Department of Materials, Loughborough University
  37. http://جامعةلوفبورا.com/مواد ... Department of Materials, Loughborough University
  38. http://拉夫堡大学.com/校友 ... Loughborough University Alumni Association
  39. http://拉夫堡大学.com/图书馆 ... Loughborough University Library
  40. http://一流大学.cn/ ... First Class University
  41. http://一流大學.cn/ ... First Class University
  42. http://一流大学。中国/ ... First Class University Ⓒ
  43. http://一流大學。中国/ ... First Class University Ⓒ
  44. http://一流教育.com/ ... First Class Education
  45. http://一流教育.cn/ ... First Class Education
  46. http://一流教育。中国/ ... First Class Education Ⓒ
  47. http://一流科研.com/ ... First Class Research
  48. http://一流科研.cn/ ... First Class Research
  49. http://一流科研。中国/ ... First Class Research Ⓒ
  50. http://宿舍网.com/ ... HallNet
  51. http://拉福堡大学.com/ ... Loughborough University (Alternate transliteration)
  52. http://万维网.lboro.ac.uk/ ... Loughborough University WWW
  53. http://项目.lboro.ac.uk/ ... Computer Science co-project
  54. http://拉夫堡大学.com/北京 ... Loughborough University at the Beijing Olympics 2008
  55. http://奥运会2012.com/ ... Olympics 2012
  56. http://オリンピック2012.com/ ... Olympics 2012
  57. http://五輪2012.com/ ... Olympics 2012
  58. http://올림픽2012.com/ ... Olympics 2012
  59. http://Олимпиада2012.com/ ... Olympics 2012
  60. http://拉夫堡2012.com/ ... lāfūbǎo
  61. http://ラフバラ2012.com/ ... lafubara
  62. http://ラフバラー2012.com/ ... lafubaraa
  63. http://러프버러2012.com/ ... leopeubeoreo
  64. http://Лафборо2012.com/ ... lafboro
  65. http://拉夫堡学院.com/ ... Loughborough College Chinese IDN
  66. http://拉福堡学院.com/ ... Loughborough College Chinese IDN
  67. http://ラフバラカレッジ.com/ ... Loughborough College Japanese IDN
  68. http://ラフバラーカレッジ.com/ ... Loughborough College Japanese IDN
  69. http://러프버러칼리지.com/ ... Loughborough College Korean IDN
  70. http://ЛафбороКолледж.com/ ... Loughborough College Russian IDN
  71. http://كليةلوفبورا.com/ ... Loughborough College Arabic IDN
  72. http://كليةلوبورو.com/ ... Loughborough College Arabic IDN
  73. http://イマゴ.com/ ... Imago, Loughborough University
  74. http://查恩伍德艺术.com/ ... Charnwood Arts, Loughborough
  75. http://ТворческийЧарнвуд.com/ ... Creative Charnwood, Loughborough
  76. http://小山.321.cn/ ... My Chinese, Japanese, Korean Website
  77. http://恺心和文文.com/ ... kǎixīn and wénwén, Loughborough
  78. http://鱿.com/ ... Cuttlefish Multimedia, Loughborough
  79. http://ラフバラ.com/ ... Cuttlefish Multimedia, Loughborough
  80. http://ラフバラ.net/ ... Cuttlefish Multimedia, Loughborough
  81. http://陡坡.net/ ... Matt Cook's Escarpment.net
  82. http://скотармитаж.net/ ... Scott Armitage Drupal Website
  83. http://скотармитаж.com/ ... Scott Armitage Drupal Website

Other IDN Web Addresses

  1. http://國立暨南國際大學.tw/ ... National Chi Nan University, Taiwan
  2. http://国立暨南国际大学.tw/ ... National Chi Nan University, Taiwan
  3. http://北京化工大学.cn/ ... Beijing University of Chemical Technology Ⓐ
  4. http://北京化工大学。中国/ ... Beijing University of Chemical Technology Ⓓ
  5. http://电子科技大学.cn/ ... University of Electronic Science and Technology of China Ⓑ
  6. http://电子科技大学。中国/ ... University of Electronic Science and Technology of China Ⓓ
  7. http://四川大学.cn/ ... Sichuan University Ⓐ
  8. http://四川大学。中国/ ... Sichuan University Ⓓ
  9. http://上海大学.cn/ ... Shanghai University Ⓑ
  10. http://上海大学。中国/ ... Shanghai University Ⓓ
  11. http://中国人民大学.cn/ ... Renmin University of China Ⓑ
  12. http://中国人民大学。中国/ ... Renmin University of China Ⓓ
  13. http://复旦大学.cn/ ... Fudan University Ⓐ
  14. http://复旦大学。中国/ ... Fudan University Ⓓ
  15. http://山东大学.cn/ ... Shandong University, China Ⓐ
  16. http://山东大学。中国/ ... Shandong University, China Ⓓ
  17. http://南昌大学.cn/ ... Nanchang University, China Ⓐ
  18. http://南昌大学。中国/ ... Nanchang University, China Ⓓ
  19. http://西北工业大学.cn/ ... NorthWestern Polytechnical University, China Ⓐ
  20. http://西北工业大学。中国/ ... NorthWestern Polytechnical University, China Ⓓ
  21. http://同济大学.cn/ ... Tongji University, China Ⓐ
  22. http://同济大学。中国/ ... Tongji University, China Ⓓ
  23. http://清华大学.cn/ ... Tsinghua University, China Ⓐ
  24. http://清华大学。中国/ ... Tsinghua University, China Ⓓ
  25. http://茶。中国/ ... Shaanxi Wuzi Green Tea Co. Ltd Ⓓ
  26. http://国际化域名论坛.com/ ... IDNs Forum Ⓐ
  27. http://구글.kr/ ... Google, Korea Ⓑ
  28. http://北京大学.cn/ ... Beijing (Peking) University Ⓐ
  29. http://北京大学。中国/ ... Beijing (Peking) University Ⓓ
  30. http://北京大学。网络/ ... Beijing (Peking) University Ⓓ
  31. http://辽宁大学.cn/ ... Liaoning University, China Ⓑ
  32. http://辽宁大学。中国/ ... Liaoning University, China Ⓓ
  33. http://湖南大学.cn/ ... Hunan University, China Ⓐ
  34. http://广州大学.cn/ ... Guangzhou University, China Ⓐ
  35. http://广州大学。中国/ ... Guangzhou University, China Ⓓ
  36. http://西安交通大学.cn/ ... Xi'an Jiaotong University, China Ⓐ
  37. http://西安交通大学.中国/ ... Xi'an Jiaotong University, China Ⓓ
  38. http://日立.jp/ ... Hitachi, Japan Ⓑ
  39. http://さかな.jp/ ... Japanese website about fish ☺ Ⓑ
  40. http://서울대학.kr/ ... Seoul National University Ⓐ
  41. http://เกมส์.com/ ... Thai games website Ⓑ
  42. http://日本語.jp/case/accessible/university.html ... Japanese Universities and Educational Institutions Ⓐ
  43. http://お花見ガイド.jp/ ... Japanese "Cherry Blossom Viewing" guide Ⓑ
  44. http://かりんとう.jp/ ... Karintou, A Japanese traditional sweet snack food Ⓐ
  45. http://イタリア語.jp/ ... Japanese Italian Language website Ⓐ
  46. http://www.映艺娱乐.cn/ ... Focus Films Ⓑ
  47. http://월드공구.kr/ ... Various Equipment and Electrical Tools Ⓑ
  48. http://가까운꽃집.kr ... Flower Shop Ⓐ
  49. http://곱창구이.kr/ ... Korean Restaurant Ⓐ
  50. http://울산맛집.kr/ ... KTDOM Promotion Service Ⓐ
  51. http://탈모치료.kr/ ... Cosmetic Clinic Ⓑ
  52. http://社團法人台灣省野鳥協會.tw/ ... Wild Bird Association of Taiwan Ⓐ
  53. http://台灣大學.tw/ ... National Taiwan University Ⓐ
  54. http://中央大学.tw/ ... National Central University, Taiwan Ⓐ
  55. http://茶葉網.tw/ ... Tea Leaf Net Ⓐ
  56. http://www.金陵蛋糕.tw/ ... Some delicious looking cakes Ⓐ
  57. http://萬年青酒店.hk/ ... Evergreen Hotel, Hong Kong Ⓐ
  58. http://名片.hk/ ... Business Cards Ⓐ
  59. http://視藝傳意.hk/ ... Visual Art Communication Company Ⓐ
  60. http://キャノン.jp/ ... Canon, Japan Ⓐ
  61. http://デノン.jp/ ... Denon, Japan Ⓑ
  62. http://ケンウッド.jp/ ... Kenwood, Japan Ⓑ
  63. http://三菱.jp/ ... Mitsubishi, Japan Ⓑ
  64. http://オリンパス.jp/ ... Olympus, Japan
  65. http://ペンテル.jp/ ... Pentel, Japan Ⓑ
  66. http://リコー.jp/ ... Ricoh, Japan Ⓑ
  67. http://전북대학교.kr/ ... Chonbuk National University, Korea Ⓐ
  68. http://パルコ.jp/ ... Parco, Japanese Department Store Ⓑ
  69. http://スイーツお取寄せ.jp/ ... Fruits, Desserts & Cakes Ⓐ
  70. http://明治大学.jp/ ... Meiji University, Tokyo, Japan Ⓐ
  71. http://كلية-اتصالات-للهندسة.امارات/ ... Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research Ⓓ

Ⓐ This IDN goes directly to the website without any redirection. (http 200)

Ⓑ This IDN resolves successfully and then is redirected to another website or page. (http 302)

Ⓒ This address currently only works if you are connected to Loughborough University Campus network. CNNIC state in their News Article that the TLD .中国 will be formally launched into the global internet in 2009. Once this action has been completed this address will be globally accessible. In the meantime there is a way of getting it to work off Campus and that is to use an alternate DNS root server. The alternate root server I am currently using is Cesidian Root. The Cesidian website gives instructions on how to set up your computer so that it uses the Cesidian root server.

Ⓓ Globally accessible if one uses an alternate root server such as, Cesidian Root.

Loughborough University can be found on the Internet in many different languages. I decided to look at the occurrences of Loughborough University in Chinese, Japanese and Korean. I googled 拉夫堡大学 (Simplified Chinese for Loughborough University), ラフバラ大学 (Japanese for Loughborough University) and 러프버러대학교 (Korean for Loughborough University). I quoted the search strings to obtain exact matches.

  1. "拉夫堡大学" ... ~ 78,600 hits (March 25th 2008)
  2. "ラフバラ大学" ... ~ 1,330 hits (March 25th 2008)
  3. "러프버러대학교" ... ~ 349 hits (March 25th 2008)

On the Internet, there are differing transliterations for Loughborough. In Japanese, Loughborough could, for example, be written as ラフバラ or ラフバラー . In the list, above, I have used the transliterations that result in the most hits.

IDN TLD names are also being developed. They are sometimes referred to as IDN.IDN. There are country specific TLDs, such as: uk, de, cn. There are global TLDs, such as: com, info, net. Currently TLDs are in ASCII. An IDN TLD can be in Unicode and so can be any language or symbol characters. In the near future, it is envisaged that we will have IDN TLDs, such as: 英国 (England) 中国 (China). ICANN are currently testing and evaluating IDN TLDs. See http://idn.icann.org/

I have put together my own IDN tests. Just click on the links below to test. Only available during office hours when my Mac is switched on. Not available at any time from off campus.

  1. http://zaffre.lboro.ac.uk/~coas/international/ ... Normal ASCII English
  2. http://小山.lboro.ac.uk/~coas/international/ ... Chinese
  3. http://小さい山.lboro.ac.uk/~coas/international/ ... Japanese
  4. http://소산.lboro.ac.uk/~coas/international/ ... Korean

They all point to a single PHP page on my Mac.

André 小山 Schappo http://twitter.com/andreschappo